1.8. Automobile himikaliya, oils and greasings
In sale the set of himikaliya, oils and the greasings, necessary procedures arrives during performance of routine maintenance and car repairs. The wide range of products of the chemical and oil-extracting industry - from cleaning structures and solvents, to oils, greasings and aerosols for protection of rubber and plastic components of the car here enters.
The cleaner for systems of injection and air a zaslonok represents strong solvent of pitches, a deposit and coal deposits. The most part of cleaners leaves after itself greasing film of dry type which does not harden and not çàñìàëèâàåòñÿ eventually. In view of formation of such film these cleaners are not recommended to be used for washing of electric components.
The cleaner for brake systems is applied to removal of traces of greasing and brake liquid from surfaces of components of brake system where absolute purity is a paramount condition of efficiency of functioning. The cleaner does not leave any traces and in many cases eliminates the squeal of brake mechanisms caused by pollution of their components.
The cleaner for electric components promotes elimination of oxide films, corrosion and deposit traces from contact surfaces without elektroprovodnost violation. Also it can be used for cleaning of spark plugs, jets, regulators of tension and other knots where complete cleaning of oil and fat is desirable.
To Vlagopoglotiteli serve for water and moisture removal from surfaces of such electric components as the generator, a tension regulator, the assembly block of safety locks, electric sockets, etc. Vlagopoglotiteli usually do not carry out an electric current, do not cause corrosion and are not inflammable.
Obezzhirivateli is represented by superstrong solvents and serve for removal of traces of greasing from external surfaces of the engine and chassis components. Are issued in the form of aerosols or are put with a brush or a brush and, depending on type, are washed away either water, or solvent.
Impellent oils represent specially developed structures for greasing of internal components of the engine. Usually contain wide different range of the additives serving for prevention of foaming and corrosion. Impellent oils are issued various degree of viscosity - from 5 to 80. Need of application of oil of this or that grade usually is defined by climatic conditions and requirements of the concrete engine. Liquid (light) oils are usually applied in the conditions of a frigid climate and at insignificant loads of the engine. Heavy (viscous) oils are used in hot conditions and at raised loads of the engine. All-weather oils possess characteristics both easy, and heavy oils and usually have designations from 5W-20 to 20W-50.
Qualities of impellent oils
All-weather oils are rather inexpensive oils with the following qualities:
- All-the-year-round use in zones of a temperate climate;
- Excellent washing properties;
- Good greasing ability at all temperatures and engine loadings;
- High stability of initial properties for a long time.
All-weather oils with the improved antifrictional qualities have, besides, additional advantages:
- All-the-year-round use in a wide range of temperature of external air;
- Small losses of engine capacity on a friction;
- Simplification of cold start of the engine – even at very low temperatures.
When using all-weather SAE 5W-30 oils it is necessary to avoid long operation of the engine with high frequency of rotation and constant big load of the engine. These restrictions do not belong to all-weather oils with the improved antifrictional qualities.
Seasonal oils owing to specific vyazkostno-temperature properties inherent in them usually cannot be used all the year round, they should be applied only in extreme climatic zones.
Use of additives and mixing of oils
It is not necessary to add any additives to the impellent oils, reducing losses on a friction.
To mix impellent oils, unfortunately, it is impossible, even if it oils of firms «with a world name» (Shell, Mobil, British Petroleum). Each firm by production of oils adds the whole complex of the additives which chemical composition is kept a secret to their basis. Therefore there are a lot of the qualitative oils of identical appointment which are meeting the requirements of the API specifications (Institute of oil of the USA) and ACEA (The European association of designers of cars), but the various firms made on technologies, when mixing are capable to create mixes of poor quality owing to interaction and a vzaimounichtozheniye of additives, that is their "incompatibility". Oils of different firms are interchangeable, about possibility of use of such oils developers of engines often specify. But it does not mean that they can be mixed. The API and ACEA specifications assume obligatory identical test methods (laboratory, bench – impellent etc.) oils of different firms. At desire (or need) developers can enter additional tests (or more severe constraints). The same treats mixing of mineral or synthetic oils (sometimes even one firm).
To mix oils of a foreign and domestic production, especially what are made with an additive of "domestic" additives, it is not allowed in a last resort. Neither the seller, nor the consumer do not know structure of additives which are in oils. Some oils of «a domestic origin» are made by the "firms" which do not have even elementary knowledge of oil products. Sometimes such "experts" use the fulfilled oils (even without appropriate regeneration) to production of "commodity". Thus and corresponding quality.
To try to reduce oil waste in the old engine and to raise a compression in cylinders at the expense of use of vysokovyazkostny oils it is inexpedient, as it will lead only to temporary improvement. Further repair of the engine will cost dearer.
It is necessary to take for a rule to use high-quality oil of one brand corresponding to the engine (according to the specification) and not to risk to mix it with same synthetic (or semi-synthetic) oil. The engine will thank for it reliable work. Do not buy oil privately as packing is easy for forging.
Transmission oil is developed for application in differentials, transmissions, and other knots where stability to influence of high temperatures is required.
Greasing for components of the chassis and bearings of wheels represents the dense greasing applied in knots, subject to the raised loadings and a friction, such as bearings of wheels, spherical support of a suspension bracket, tips of steering drafts and kardanny hinges.
High-temperature greasing for bearings of wheels is capable to resist to influence of the high temperatures arising in bearings of wheels of cars, equipped with disk brake mechanisms. Usually it is greasing with the maintenance of MoS2.
White greasing (tsiaty) represents the dense greasing put on metal surfaces contacting among themselves in places where there are problems with the increased moistening. Remains soft both at low, and at high temperatures, it is not washed away and it is not diluted by water.
Assembly greasing is applied in the conditions of high pressures, usually contains molybdenum and is used for greasing of the knots subject to raised loadings (such as radical and shatunny bearings and working ledges of cams) before the first start of the engine after major maintenance.
Silicone greasings are applied to protection of rubber, plastic, vinyl and nylon components.
Graphite greasings serve for application where oil cannot be used in view of problems with pollution (for example, in locks). Dry graphite perfectly greases metal details, preventing influence on them of moisture, acids and other aggressive pollution. Greasing is electrowire and does not break contact in such knots, as, for example, the ignition lock.
Getting structures are applied by Molibdensoderzhashchiye to simplification of an otdavaniye of the "become attached" fixture, and also for fixture greasing in order to avoid its corrosion in the future.
Heatwire greasing is not electrowire and serves for installation of electronic modules of ignition from which intensive heat removal is required.
RTV hermetic is most widely applied prokladochny hermetic. It is made on the basis of silicon, stiffens on air, provides sealing, gluing, is waterproof, fills defects of surfaces, remains elastic, it is not compressed and does not sit down, it acts rather easily in film and applied in addition practically to all laying on knots where temperatures do not exceed average values.
Anaerobny hermetic, unlike RTV hermetic, can be applied not only in addition to laying, but also to formation of those. It remains elastic, is steady against influence of solvents and well fills roughnesses of surfaces. The main difference from RTV hermetic consists in hardening conditions. If RTV hermetic starts to stiffen after hit on air, anaerobny hermetic rises only in lack of air. It means that hardening of such hermetic occurs only after assembly of components and their dense pressing to each other.
Hermetic for pipes and carving connections is applied to sealing of shtutserny connections of hydraulic, pneumatic and vacuum lines. It is usually made on the basis of a teflon compound and it is delivered in the form of aerosols, a tape (FUM) or the liquids put like paint.
The anti-taking compound serves for the prevention of "prikipaniye", corrosion, jamming and a cold privarivaniye of fixture. High-temperature anti-taking hermetics usually are made on the basis of medsoderzhashchy or graphite greasings and used in fixture of system of production of the fulfilled gases and a final collector.
Taking compounds serve Anaerobnye for prevention of a spontaneous otdavaniye of fixture under the influence of vibrations and stiffen only after installation in absence of contact to air. Taking compounds of average capacity are applied to fixing of small fixture which is subject to a regular otdavaniye. High-power compounds are usually used for blocking of the large fixture which otdavaniye is not made on a regular basis.
Additives to oil serve for change of chemical properties of oil without change of its viscosity for the purpose of decrease in an internal friction in the engine. It is necessary to notice that the majority of the firms manufacturers which are letting out engine oils, any additives to them do not recommend to use.
Additives to fuel carry out at once some functions, depending on the chemical composition. Usually contain the solvents promoting a conclusion of slags and removal of a deposit from internal surfaces and components of system of injection of fuel and an inlet path. Besides, application of such additives promotes removal of the coal deposits which are forming on walls of chambers of combustion. The structure of some additives includes the substances serving for greasing of components of the top part of a head of cylinders (the klapanny mechanism, piston rings), others promote condensate removal from walls of a fuel tank.
Brake liquid represents specially developed structure, capable to resist to influence of high temperatures and the pressure arising in brake system. It is not necessary to allow contact of brake liquid to the painted surfaces of the car and open sites of a body. Brake liquid is poisonous. Keep brake liquid in tightly closed container in order to avoid moisture hit in it (liquid is very hygroscopic) and dirt. During car operation brake liquid takes away a certain quantity of water from air that can lead to emergence of corrosion of details of working brake system. Besides, thus the temperature of boiling of brake liquid essentially goes down, doing more possible formation of vials of steam at big load of brake system and, therefore, the probability of refusal of brakes raises. Therefore it is necessary to change brake liquid of once a year. Apply the brake liquid, satisfying to car specifications.
Glue for fastening of sealing strips of body apertures as it is clear from its name, serves for fastening of sealing strips of apertures of doors, windows and covers of luggage compartments. It can be applied to fixing of elements of internal furnish.
The anticorrosive covering for the bottom of the car represents the gudronoobrazny structure made on an oil basis, and serves for a sheeting of metal surfaces, preventing their corrosion. Besides, carries out function of sound insulation of salon.
Wax and polyrole are applied to protection of the painted surfaces against environment influences. Use of various type âîñêîâ and polyroles can demand various type of paint. The structure of some polyroles includes the abrasive or chemical additives serving for removal of an external layer of oxides (tarnishing) from painted surfaces of old cars. Recently in the market different polyroles which are not containing wax which structure includes a set of chemical additives, such as polymers or substances on a silicon basis are widely presented. Such polyroles usually are put and keep more long than usual (wax) easier.